Classification of electronic materials

Introduction to electronic materials

1. Electronic materials refer to materials used in electronic technology and microelectronic technology, which are divided into

1. Semiconductor materials

Semiconductor material (semiconductor material) is a class of electronic materials with semiconductor properties (conductivity between conductors and insulators, resistivity in the range of about 1mΩ·cm~1GΩ·cm), which can be used to make semiconductor devices and integrated circuits.

2. Piezoelectric and ferroelectric materials

Ferroelectric materials refer to a class of materials with ferroelectric effect, which is a branch of pyroelectric materials. Ferroelectric materials and their applications have become one of the most popular research topics in the fields of condensed matter physics and solid-state electronics. Crystals, the reason is that they have quite excellent properties. Many electro-optic crystals and piezoelectric materials are ferroelectric crystals. Ferroelectric crystals are of great significance both technically and theoretically.

3. Conductive metal materials

Conductive materials refer to materials specially used to transport and conduct current, and are generally divided into two types: good conductor materials and high resistance materials. Conductive materials include conductive plastic and conductive rubber. Conductive rubber is to uniformly distribute conductive particles such as glass silver plating, aluminum silver plating, and silver in silicone rubber, and make the conductive particles contact through pressure to achieve a good conductive effect.

4. Alloy material

Cemented carbide is an alloy material made of hard compounds of refractory metals and bonding metals through powder metallurgy.
Cemented carbide has a series of excellent properties such as high hardness, wear resistance, good strength and toughness, heat resistance and corrosion resistance, especially its high hardness and wear resistance, which basically remain unchanged even at a temperature of 500°C , It still has a high hardness at 1000 °C.
Cemented carbide is widely used as tool material, such as turning tools, milling cutters, planers, drills, boring tools, etc., for cutting cast iron, non-ferrous metals, plastics, chemical fibers, graphite, glass, stone and ordinary steel, and can also be used for cutting Difficult-to-machine materials such as heat-resistant steel, stainless steel, high manganese steel, and tool steel.

5. Magnetic material

Materials that respond in some way to a magnetic field are called magnetic materials. According to the strength of the material's magnetism in an external magnetic field, it can be divided into diamagnetic materials, paramagnetic materials, ferromagnetic materials, antiferromagnetic materials and ferrimagnetic materials. Most materials are diamagnetic or paramagnetic, which means they respond less to external magnetic fields. Ferromagnetic substances and ferrimagnetic substances are ferromagnetic substances, and the so-called magnetic materials refer to ferromagnetic materials. For magnetic materials, the magnetization curve and hysteresis loop are characteristic curves that reflect their basic magnetic properties. Ferromagnetic materials are generally Fe, Co, Ni elements and their alloys, rare earth elements and their alloys, and some Mn compounds. Magnetic materials are generally divided into soft magnetic materials and hard magnetic materials according to the difficulty of magnetization.

6. Optoelectronic materials

Materials used in the field of optoelectronic technology, which use photons and electrons as carriers to process, store and transmit information. Optoelectronics technology is a new technology developed by combining optical and electronic technologies. It is mainly used in the field of information, but also in the fields of energy and national defense. The used optoelectronic materials are mainly divided into optical functional materials, laser materials, luminescent materials, photoelectric information transmission materials (mainly optical fibers), photoelectric storage materials, photoelectric conversion materials, photoelectric display materials (such as electroluminescent materials and liquid crystal display materials) ) and optoelectronic integrated materials.

7. Electromagnetic wave shielding material

Electromagnetic shield material refers to materials that can shield electromagnetic wave interference.

and other related materials.

2. Application of electronic materials

Electronic materials are the material basis for the development of modern electronics industry and science and technology, and are also technology-intensive subjects in the field of science and technology. It involves multidisciplinary knowledge such as electronic technology, physical chemistry, solid state physics and process foundation. According to the chemical properties of the material, it can be divided into metal electronic materials, electronic ceramics, polymer electronics, glass dielectrics, mica, gas insulating dielectric materials, inductors, insulating materials, magnetic materials, electronic hardware, electrical ceramic materials, shielding materials, Piezoelectric crystal materials, electronic fine chemical materials, electronic light construction and textile materials, electronic tin solder materials, PCB production materials, and other electronic materials.


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